1. About MAMI database

1.1 Aims and features of MAMI

Human microbiomes and probiotics have been proven to impact human health significantly in many studies, with a number of microbial raw sequences from multiple body sites produced and probiotics strains discovered. Especially for the population of infants while microorganisms on their body are simpler than adults and will develop rapidly. Moreover, the maternal microbiota plays the most essential role in infant microbiota colonization and development.

database overview
fig1.1 database briefing

Exploring how the microbiota of infants changes in their early life is key to discovering the association between microbiome and infant health. So here we curated and reprocessed many data related to maternal and neonatal health, and then constructed this database with many useful functions, such as Search, Browse, Analysis and Probiotics.

database overview
fig1.2 key functions of MAMI
1.2 Database statistics

We retrieved metagenomic and 16S rRNA sequencing datasets of longitudinal samples of infants and mothers from multiple public cohorts. In total, more than 36,000 microbiome datasets of thousands of infants aged 1-36 months and mothers were obtained and analyzed after quality control. This combined dataset covered 29 countries on 6 continents, including Asia, South and North America, Europe, Australia, and Africa. Several clinical features of mother and infant populations are shown on the homepage.

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fig1.3 statistics of microbial samples

For probiotics, many eatable strains for infants, probiotics foods, probiotics drugs and probiotics patents are curated in MAMI.

database overview
fig1.4 statistics of probiotics
2.1 Search box

Input the microbial name in the search box and click the "Search" button at the top of the "Search" page, then you can get search results of genus or species present in mother-infant microbial samples, as well as probiotics strains curated in the database.

database overview
fig2.1 microbial search box
2.2 Search result

The matched results will be shown at 3 levels (genus, species and strain), then you can click any resulting card of them to get the details.

database overview
fig2.2 search results at 3 levels
2.3 Microbial details

When you at the detail page, you will see comprehensive characteristics of the target microbe in maternal or neonatal microbiome, such as microbial prevalence across different countries, relative abundance across multiple body sites or clinical features and so on. Besides, we include an external database gutMDisorder for users to refer to microbial abundance alternation associated with human phenotypes.

database overview
fig2.3 bacterial characteristics

3. Browse Microbiome using MAMI

3.1 Browse infant gut microbiome from database

As most microbiome data currently in our database are from infant stool samples and sequenced by the amplicon technology, all the interactive diagrams are plotted based on infant gut microbiome and at genus level now. You can select a population you are interested in by setting the filters, and then click the "Browse" button to visualize the microbiome of them.

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fig3.1 select microbiome samples by filters

Especially, MAMI provides 5 parts of diagrams. Click the tap to get different types of plots for your investigation. And all plots are downloadable as SVG images.

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fig3.2 microbiome browse results
3.2 Browse microbiome on your local file

Moreover, you can click the "Uploaded data" button at the sidebar to visualize your taxonomic abundance table. In this module, you are expected to upload a valid file for visualization. Example data can be referred to if you have problems.

database overview
fig3.3 upload and browse your local file

4. Analyse Microbiome using MAMI

4.1 Make a comparison between 2 groups of database data

On this page, you can make a comparative analysis between 2 groups of microbiome data. Firstly, set the filters to select the 2 groups of data from the database you want to compare with, then click the "Compare" button to plot the figures.

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fig4.1 select 2 groups of samples by filters

As results of microbiome comparisons, abundance, prevalence, diversity and network figures are shown for users.

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fig4.2 microbiome comparison results
4.2 Make a comparison between database and uploaded data

Same to the upload function in the "Browse" page, you can also upload your local file and make a comparative analysis. Set the filters for Group 1 and upload your taxonomic abundance table for Group 2, and then click the "Compare" button to start plotting.

database overview
fig4.3 comparison with an uploaded file

5. Investigate Probiotics in MAMI

Here we curated 14 probiotics strains that can be used for infants, with 4 parts of probiotics information showing in the sidebar.
5.1 Probiotics list

In this part, all the probiotics are present in the table. You can click any of them for further browsing. It should be noted that a few items are not clickable because they are not collected in the database now.

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fig5.1 probiotics table

As for details of probiotics strains, we provide introductions, functional studies, external links and so on for users' referring.

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fig5.2 probiotics strain introductions
5.2 Probiotics foods

Probiotics are wildly used in foods currently and are proven to help promote human health. There are many probiotics foods for infants collected in MAMI.

database overview
fig5.3 table of probiotics foods
5.3 Probiotics drugs

Here we curated some probiotics drugs for treating infant diseases, such as AAD(antibiotic-associated diarrhea), IBS(Irritable bowel syndrome) and some other common diseases of infants.

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fig5.4 table of probiotics drugs
5.4 Probiotics patents

Here we also curated many patents of functional probiotics strains across 4 main regions, including Europe, China, the US and Japan.

database overview
fig5.5 table of probiotics patents


Thank you for visiting MAMI !

Please contact us if you have problems or suggestions. Any comments that might help us improve our database are most welcome. We will respond to your feedback as quickly as possible.

Reasonable recommendations will be adopted and implemented in subsequent versions of MAMI. Thanks for your attention and support!

Contacts :

Tian Zhou:

Dr. Liwen Xiao:

Prof. Fangqing Zhao:


Zhao's Lab
Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.